Liberian Colloquial—–A Need to Legalize It

first_imgSince the inception of mankind, the need to communicate has become increasingly important. Especially, with what the world has become, a global village, the urge to communicate has extremely increased. The emergence of the social media is a backup to the quest for communication.  A journalist will inform you about the joy he or she accrues when feedbacks are received from a publication or broadcast. Animals and insects far below the intelligence of man device means to also communicate. You become amazed watching videos or documentaries on how animals communicate especially when pursuing preys, looking out for others in danger zones, caring for a new born and many other instances. Have you been eager to transmit information but could not due to language barrier? I know how disgusting it becomes.The Liberian Language CaseThe official language of Liberia is English. English is the lingua franca for speakers of different indigenous languages. Liberia has over fifteen (15) spoken traditional dialects. There are variances in dialects or languages and communication.  In their Culture Profile No. 19, 2005 Liberians- An Introduction to their History and Culture, Robin Dunn-Marcos, Konia T. Kollehlon, Bernard Ngovo, and Emily Russ informed that Spoken Liberian English has three major varieties. One is spoken by well-educated people and is used in political and social speeches, conversations, and education. This conforms to the English Grammar. The second Liberian English is the nonstandard English (colloquial). This does not follow the rules of English Grammar and usage. Liberians who speak this variety are, by and large, less educated and do not strictly observe conventional rules of grammar and usage. Many of them dropped out of elementary or secondary school. The third variety of Liberian English is spoken primarily by Liberians with little or no formal education, including market vendors, Soldiers (this has immensely changed with the level of education of the new army), unskilled laborers, and those who reside in rural areas.For many years, discussions have continued to reverberate on the need to introduce a local language that will uniquely be widely spoken across Liberia by different tribes like the case of the Twi language in Ghana. Some advances were made to introduce Kpelle (one of Liberia’s popular dialects) as a formally accepted local language. As the move intensified, Kpelle soon found itself being taught as a course at the Liberia College of the University of Liberia and other universities. Presently, the Kpelle language remains an optional course for studies at the University of Liberia. This initiative stemmed from two major factors among others. The first factor was meant to introduce a language that almost every Liberian would speak. The reason was to ease the challenge of language barrier among the populace including the literate, semi-literate and illiterate. Additionally, the second rationale was intended to institute a local language that is unique to Liberia and has a common belonging. It was proffered with the opinion that Kpelle has the largest number of native speakers and was (still is) the largest ethnic group. Consequently, it would had been easily spoken by almost all Liberians. Unfortunately, this goal was not actualized.Reasons for the Failure of Kpelle as a National LanguageOverlooked of Educational Levels The educational level of every citizen should be highly considered in a plan that directly affects them and especially when that program is deeply connected to comprehension. The makeup of a country makes an introduction of a language unique to that country. Liberia has the educated, semi-educated and uneducated. The introduction of Kpelle to the population was understood from the classroom perspective. The dialect was introduced in some schools especially the University of Liberia. It is very unlikely for a person that has no knowledge of classroom type of learning since his or her childhood and up to adulthood to begin learning a language via classroom. Additionally, there are little possibilities for a semi-educated to return to class and begins learning a new language after missing out on school for a prolong period of time. Furthermore, the language was not widely introduced to primary and secondary schools so that pupils grew up learning it. Generally, one will conclude that the language was positioned for the educated people because they had the intelligence and will-power to learning it. This simply represents a foundational failure as the base of easily and massively introducing the Kpelle language across Liberia became exceedingly limited to the educated few attending University.Lack of Tangible ProgramsInstituting a general language for a country is very different from an individual or a hand-full of people learning a language. The establishment of a vibrant institute that supervises programs is very significant in ensuing that citizens learn a language. In his book “ Some Terms From Liberian Speech,” Warren L. d’Azevedo gave acknowledgements to Bai T. Moore and Jangaba M. Johnson, two Liberians who were then jobbing with Liberia’s Ministry of Information and Cultural Affairs and Tourism for their support in advancing the promotion of the Liberian dialects especially Kpelle. This is mentioned to stress the role the Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism had to perform in the introduction of Kpelle.Commercial ActivitiesIn his paper on Seminar Topic published in the Perspective, Sonkarley T. Beaie asserted that the Kpelle dialect failed to become a national language because it was not used in many commercial activities. To some extent, I do concord with his assertion. If the marketers that were conversant with Kpelle would have spoken the dialect often during transactions, some good results would have emerged.Reasons and Steps to Establishing the Liberian English as a National LanguageForeigners wıth little or no idea about Liberia, usually question me about the general local language Liberians speak. Obviously, I am pushed to mention Liberian English or Colloquial. Definitely, one can safely asserts that there is no other formally accepted language that almost every Liberian speaks besides the English language. In an article produced by the Cornell University ILR School named, Some Terms from Liberian Speech, Michael Evan Gold catalogued a work by Warren L. d’Azevedo which gave a general overview of the Liberian English and some terms. This is how the author described the language: “I enjoy speaking and listening to Liberian English. Words that are passive in American English are active in Liberian English. Words that are only specific and concrete in American English are metaphorical in Liberian English. I suppose that part of the reason is that Liberian English makes use of fewer words than American English, so that each Word must do as much work as possible, stretch to as many cases as conceivable”.Sometimes I quiz myself whether we (Liberians) are aware of the widely spoken nature of the Liberian English by diverse groups? Have we thought to standardize or formalize the language? The Liberian English usually called Liberian Colloquial gets its root from the English Language. Even though it is just an oral language, it diversified over the period. There were inclusion of other words, the disregard of English Grammar, the light and mispronunciation of words from English and many other changes. It has made the Liberian ascent very unique in Africa. If you are not a Liberian or have not learnt the language, it is very difficult to understand even though its origin is English. From personal experiences and experiences of others, people tend to love it due to its unique quality. There are close comparable of ascents among Sierra Leoneans, Ghanaians, and Nigerians. This is the same for francophone countries. Distinctly, the ascent of Liberians is very unique and incomparable.Legislative ApprovalThe Liberian Constitution is not bluntly clear as to how a language should be instituted as a national language. Article 41 of the Liberian Constitution states “The business of the Legislature shall be concluded in the English Language or when adequate preparations shall have been made, in one more of the languages of the Republic as the Legislature may by resolution approve.”  The English language is known as the language of Instruction in every sector. Article 41 also apprises that when preparations are made in one of the languages, the legislature may approve it in order to use the approved language as a means of instruction. In as much all branches of government are equal, the Legislature stands as the first branch of government and has the authority by the power of the constitution to enact legislations. Furthermore, it stands as the direct representative of the citizens. If a language should be approved by the legislature as its language of instruction, it automatically becomes a national or sub-national language. The legislative approval will also give the language a legal backing. This does not in any way infer that the Liberian English should be used as a language of instruction in the legislature or other branches of government and places of high intelligence. This is just to indicate that for the language to be formally considered a local language spoken by almost everyone, it needs legislative approval.Changing the name (Liberian English or Colloquial)Many will argue that the name (Liberian English or Colloquial) is not ingrained into the Liberian society and culture. It is not deeply attached to Liberia.  A name that symbolizes, resonates or is highly connected to the Liberia culture or people should be carved. This is something that also requires the public participation.Create the ScriptThe Liberian Colloquial is not a written language because there is no standard or formally accepted script. The language is only spoken. The creation of a script that makes the language different from the English language (even though it already sounds different) is welcomed. Additionally, the creation of a script should involve detailed research, taking into consideration people from every sector of the Liberian Society who speaks it.Institution of ProgramsThe creation of programs is an important factor to ensuring that the language is learnt to a greater extent. Programs established should consider that the country has students, educated, semi-educated, and uneducated people. To have a widely spoken local language, these four groups of people should be considered in creating the programs. The students will most likely improve their knowledge in the language when it is introduced in schools. Additionally, national competitions and other programs will aid in the process. The semi-educated and the uneducated individuals’ places of work, social activities and other major activities should be identified. Programs should be directed to those places. Programs that are simple and practical as much as possible should be created to enhancing their knowledge of the language. The fact remains that Liberian English is spoken by a greater number of the population. The matter of transition that was a weakness for Kpelle should not be a difficulty for the Liberian English.Commercial ActivitiesIf you have visited market centers in Liberia, you do not need to be informed that Liberian English is the major language of communication among marketers to marketers and marketers to buyers. Liberian English is the language of exchange. This is very important to the institution of a language.ConclusionThis article does not in any way disregard the teaching of the various local dialects especially to the younger generation. Furthermore, it does not push for the Liberian English to become the main mode of communication in places of intelligence (schools, offices, government, intellectual gathering and others) but seeks to recommend that the Liberian English becomes a local language that is formally accepted and spoken by almost all Liberians in their daily lives. I could have wished the same for any of the local dialects if it had possessed the unquestionable characteristics and features of the Liberian English. I wish that parents can also teach their children the dialects of their tribes. This furthers the cause for community communication and solidarity, in addition cultural practices and sense of togetherness.Encouragingly, the unique qualities and simplicity of the Liberian English among Liberians thus become a valid argument to have it as Liberia’s recognized local language. The Liberian English is spoken by many Liberians from diverse backgrounds. Moreover, it is informally considered the general local language. As policy makers think in the direction of a local language, let them be reminded that the Liberian English has many of the characteristics that suit a recognized local language.About the authorZubah Kollie Yennego, Jr. is a Student at Marmara University, İstanbul, TurkeyShare this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Latest: Chelsea 1 Schalke 1 – Blues rattled by Huntelaar equaliser

first_imgKlaas-Jan Huntelaar netted a 62nd-minute equaliser for Schalke at Stamford Bridge.Cesc Fabregas’ first goal for Chelsea had given them a flying start in their opening Champions League game.Fabregas struck in the 11th minute when he found Eden Hazard on the left and then collected the Belgian’s pass before steering his shot beyond keeper Ralf Fährmann.Schalke were unhappy because Fabregas appeared to foul Max Meyer before scoring, but the tables were turned in the second half because Chelsea felt the Spaniard was fouled in the build-up to Huntelaar’s leveller.After Fabregas was bundled off the ball, Julian Draxler burst downfield and picked out skipper Huntelaar, who fired into the bottom corner.It came against the run of play as Chelsea appeared to be in control.They made a bright start and Ramires should have put them ahead but miscued after being found by Didier Drogba.After the opener, Hazard’s low shot was blocked before Fabregas might have scored a second but blazed over following great work on the right by Branislav Ivanovic.At the other end, Chelsea keeper Thibaut Courtois did well when he was finally called upon, palming away an effort from former Tottenham man Kevin-Prince Boateng.And in the final minute of the first half, Draxler missed a great chance for the German side when he shot wide of the far post.Drogba recovered from an ankle problem in time for the match and is making his first start since returning to the Bridge, while summer signing Filipe Luis was handed his full debut.Drogba looked set to score with a tap-in early in the second half but the Ivorian failed to make contact with Willian’s excellent ball into the danger area.And he missed another chance shortly before Schalke’s equaliser, dragging a shot wide after being put through by Hazard.Oscar has been sent on in place of Ramires as Chelsea look to regain the lead.Chelsea: Courtois; Ivanovic, Cahill, Terry, Luis; Matic, Fabregas; Ramires (Oscar 67), Willian, Hazard; Drogba.Subs: Cech, Zouma, Azpilicueta, Mikel, Remy, Costa.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more

Spinning Solar System Objects to Keep Them Old

first_imgIf you remove the obligation to think in billions of years, many phenomena in the solar system make more sense.PlutoMore anomalies on Pluto look young. “Pluto is coloured red by ammonia spewing from underneath its surface,” writes Leah Crane for New Scientist. That should sound baffling for an object assumed to be 4.5 billion years old.In space, ammonia doesn’t last long – it is easily broken up by ultraviolet light and charged particles from the sun, as well as cosmic rays from elsewhere in the galaxy.“Ammonia is a fragile molecule in a space environment, so the fact that we see it exposed on the surface means that it was put there recently,” says New Horizons team member Dale Cruikshank at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California. “I don’t mean last Thursday, but maybe 100 million years ago.”In context, 100 million years represents only 1/45th the assumed age of the solar system. And there’s a lot of the ammonia present. Unexpected findings like this require auxiliary hypotheses to keep them old. Try as he might, Cruikshank can’t stretch the age out far enough:Because the ammonia is spread over such a large area, it probably emerged in spurting fountains of ice particles as well as by oozing, Cruikshank says. He and his colleagues calculated that this activity must have taken place at most one billion years ago for the ammonia to still be detectable, though it may be more recent.So how and why did it start spurting in the last 1/5th of the assumed age? Quick! Change the subject! “This does not mean that life is present — and we have not yet found it — but it indicates a place where we should look,” another planetary scientist says in an article on Space.com. The paper in Science Advances, however, cannot get 4.5 billion years [4 x 109] out of Pluto.At times when Pluto’s atmosphere is 10% transparent to Lyman-α photons, this flux corresponds to a time scale of ~4 × 105 years [450,000 years], indicating a geologically short lifetime. At times of lower atmospheric transparency, the equivalent lifetime for the ammonia is ~4 × 108 years [400 million years].Ultima ThuleAnother surprising body in the outer solar system is Ultima Thule, the Kuiper Belt object that New Horizons encountered in January two years after its Pluto flyby. Space.com drew attention to “mystery mounds” that the discovery team found. Listen to the sound of scientists gasping when the two lobes of the body were found not to be spherical:“That caught us by surprise,” Stern added. “I think it caught everybody by surprise.”New Horizons imagery also revealed a number of abutting mound-like features on the larger of the two lobes, which mission team members call Ultima. (The smaller lobe, naturally, is Thule.)“They seem to be raised, but exactly what causes them we’re not sure,” Stern said. “It’s still early days.”An early hypothesis held that the mounds resulted from convection of low-temperature ice, which was driven by the heat generated by the radioactive decay of aluminum-26. But further work suggests that this is an unlikely scenario, Stern said. The team now thinks the mounds may be the retained outlines of the small planetesimals that came together to form the Ultima lobe long ago.“But there could be other processes as well,” Stern said. “So, this is an active topic of debate.“NeptuneAnother object showing activity is Triton, Neptune’s largest moon. When Voyager 2 flew by in 1989, scientists were astonished to see evidence of cryovolcanoes and nitrogen geysers. An article on Phys.org tries to explain which gases are likely responsible (N2 and CO), but dodges the question of whether its activity could have been occurring for 4.5 billion years. This article also changes the subject, saying of nitrogen (an inert gas in its diatomic molecular form), “Its abundance in the outer Solar System is an important key to life’s origins, as it is an important part of the building blocks of life.” But the scientists admit Neptune and Triton most likely do not have life. The statement titillates the public with an irrelevant supposition in order to dodge the question of age.SaturnWith Cassini data safely archived on Earth, scientists will be combing through its findings for years or decades. In a recent paper in Geophysical Research Letters, the main findings from Cassini’s last year at Saturn have been summarized. All of them sound too dynamic to last for billions of years.New discoveries examined in this issue include tiny ring particles with complex hydrocarbons streaming into Saturn’s atmosphere, methane from the rings feeding Saturn’s upper atmosphere, electric currents flowing between Saturn and its rings, and a new inner radiation belt. Saturn gravity and magnetic field measurements detected deep winds and differential rotation in its upper layers. Results from Cassini’s final orbits turned out to be more interesting than we could have imagined. Understanding the interior of Saturn and the interplay between the rings and planet will provide insights into how our solar system formed and evolved and the role of gas giant planets in exoplanet systems.Scientists often mask their surprise at false predictions by calling the findings “interesting” while issuing more promissory notes about how the findings will “provide insights” into “evolution” of this or that phenomenon.The SunAren’t we lucky to have a star that spins slowly? That’s uncommon. In fact, the planets have far more of the solar system’s angular momentum than the sun does. That seems backwards. New Scientist describes how lucky Earth was in the sun’s early history:[Prabel] Saxena and his team used data from the Kepler Space Telescope on other sun-like stars to build three models of the young Earth and moon, each with the sun rotating at a different rate. The faster the young sun rotated, the more often it would have experienced flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), blasting huge plumes of plasma into space and battering the inner solar system.They found that for the fast- and even medium-rotating models, there were too many CMEs. Even if the sun rotated just about once every week, there could be tens of CMEs a day, enough to erode away all of the moon’s potassium and much of its sodium – volatile elements that we know still exist there today.In reporter Leah Crane’s headline, “The young sun spun slowly, which could explain why we are here.” Count your lucky stars.Two false assumptions are holding back real science about the solar system: (1) the moyboy mindset, and (2) secularism. Think of how liberating it would be to see our extremely special Earth as a product of intelligent design not that long ago.From a philosophy of science standpoint, there is no obligation for scientists to spin observations into a preferred timeline. Suppose, for instance, each scientist were to just look at processes occurring on a moon—say, the geysers on Triton or Enceladus—and make reasonable upper limits about how long that could have been going on. Why not call that number the maximum age of the moon, and leave it at that? Why all the spin doctoring to force-fit the age into the 4.5 billion years belief?Taking the supposition further, why does the 4.5 billion year age, derived from meteorites, take precedence over everything else? Why couldn’t that age bow to younger ages of other objects? Or, to think even more outside the consensus box, why couldn’t each object in the solar system have its own age?You know the answer. Secular scientists want a comprehensive, materialistic world view from big bang to man. They want galaxies to evolve, stars to evolve, planets to evolve, life to evolve, and human minds to evolve. Everything has to fit that vision, so everything has to evolve in the right order. Plus, Darwin needs those billions of years for life to evolve. It’s irritating to have objects show up out of their spot in the timeline. If Pluto looks too young, it must be artificially aged via storytelling!But what if it is young? Just asking. (Visited 428 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

“Desert Geocaching” A Geocaching.com Lost & Found Video

first_img SharePrint Related”4×4 Geocaching” A Geocaching.com Lost & Found VideoAugust 31, 2010In “Community””Newbie Geocaching 101” A Geocaching.com Lost & Found VideoDecember 7, 2010In “Lost & Found Stories””Accessible Geocaching” A Geocaching.com Lost & Found VideoNovember 9, 2010In “Lost & Found Stories” One-third of all land on the planet is considered desert. The parched earth is not off-limits to the ingenuity of geocachers.  Watch the Geocaching.com Lost & Found video “Desert Geocaching.” See your fellow geocachers use the sand and shrubs as a sprawling canvas to create and enjoy the GPS-enabled treasure hunt.Desert geocaching in CaliforniaGeocachers say the wide expanses offer those hiding geocaches nearly unlimited creativity and those finding geocaches unlimited fun.You can explore more videos on the adventure of geocaching.  Check out  the Geocaching.com Lost & Found video gallery.  Explore 4×4 geocaching, watch a Travel Bug go around the world and visit the highest and lowest geocaches in existence.Share with your Friends:Morelast_img read more

10 months agoArsenal boss Emery: We failed to take our chances

first_imgArsenal boss Emery: We failed to take our chancesby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveArsenal boss Unai Emery admits poor finishing saw them lose to Tottenham in last night’s Carabao Cup quarterfinal defeat.Spurs won 2-0 through goals from Son Heung-min and Dele Alli.Emery said, “I think we worked like we wanted to, like we’d prepared for this match. We created chances in the first half to score, but today the efficiency was not good for us. We didn’t concede a lot of chances, but they have good players with quality who scored. We worked for 90 minutes and in our moments we didn’t take our chances. “They scored theirs. Only the first half, I think we were good on the pitch but then sometimes we needed a bit more of the ball to keep possession longer. But that’s not easy against them because they press really well. Our planned game, we worked on that. It was poor finishing.”Emery continued: “We had Micki with the one on one [chance early on] and they scored with their first one-on-one. but this is football. Today I am happy with our performance, but not happy with our result. But also I think we are doing our process. They are ahead of us in this process. We need to continue creating our identity, our strong ideas to be more consistent in the games. “But this is our way. Now we’ve finished in this competition and are thinking about Saturday because we have another three very important competitions, the first is the Premier League, then the Europa League and also the FA Cup. Today we finished this competition.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

Memphis Set To Honor Former Basketball Coach John Calipari In Late December

first_imgJohn Calipari hanging out with Derrick Rose.Twitter/@basketballtalkThis one might get a little bit awkward. This afternoon, University of Memphis president Dr. M. David Russ announced that the school will be honoring former head basketball coach John Calipari this December. Will be honoring Hall of Fame coach @UKCoachCalipari in Memphis, Dec 28-29. Stay tuned for details. Will be a great homecoming.— Dr. M. David Rudd (@UofMemphisPres) September 9, 2015From 2001-2009, Calipari was extremely successful with the Tigers. The program went 252-69 under Calipari, reaching the Elite Eight three times and losing in the national championship in 2007-08. Of course, that season, in which the Tigers went 38-1, was vacated after the NCAA invalidated star guard Derrick Rose’s SAT score. By the time the NCAA made its ruling, Calipari had already taken the job at Kentucky.Calipari has a major hand in turning Memphis into a nationally relevant program, but his departure has definitely rubbed many Tigers fans the wrong way. We’re very interested to see what type of reaction the fan base has in December.last_img read more

Bruce Springsteen Cancels North Carolina Concert Over Extreme AntiLGBT Law

first_imgBruce Springsteen canceled a concert scheduled for North Carolina over the weekend in protest over an extreme Anti-LGBT law.“As you, my fans, know I’m scheduled to play in Greensboro, North Carolina this Sunday,” said the singer in a statement. “As we also know, North Carolina has just passed HB2, which the media are referring to as the “bathroom” law. HB2 — known officially as the Public Facilities Privacy and Security Act — dictates which bathrooms transgender people are permitted to use. Just as important, the law also attacks the rights of LGBT citizens to sue when their human rights are violated in the workplace. No other group of North Carolinians faces such a burden. To my mind, it’s an attempt by people who cannot stand the progress our country has made in recognizing the human rights of all of our citizens to overturn that progress. Right now, there are many groups, businesses, and individuals in North Carolina working to oppose and overcome these negative developments. Taking all of this into account, I feel that this is a time for me and the band to show solidarity for those freedom fighters. As a result, and with deepest apologies to our dedicated fans in Greensboro, we have canceled our show scheduled for Sunday, April 10th. Some things are more important than a rock show and this fight against prejudice and bigotry — which is happening as I write — is one of them. It is the strongest means I have for raising my voice in opposition to those who continue to push us backwards instead of forwards.”H.B. 2 has eliminated existing municipal non-discrimination protections for LGBT people and prevents such protections from being passed by cities in the future. The legislation also forces transgender students in public schools to use restrooms and other facilities inconsistent with their gender identity, putting 4.5 billion dollars in federal funding under Title IX at risk. It also compels the same type of discrimination against transgender people to take place in state buildings, including in public universities. Lawmakers passed the legislation in a hurried, single-day session, and Governor McCrory quickly signed it into law in the dead of night.“Bruce Springsteen is a hero and an icon because he gives voice, both through his music and his advocacy, to those who struggle against injustice and equality,” said Human Rights Campaign President Chad Griffin. “It means so much that he has spoken out against this hateful bill on behalf of thousands of citizens whose rights and fundamental dignity are being trampled by the leadership of North Carolina.”last_img read more